moths. 0000003436 00000 n <<7d58ab741c86b94f99f3c63ecbff4fcb>]>> B.t. More Locations, Phone: (207) 287-3200 0000037510 00000 n H�lU�nA����>&L�7�ϏEB�KrC�#,RR^ ����3=���Lո�^ʞ�_|~�d���=��,�'��x Heavy looper populations can kill conifers in one season but usually mortality occurs in stands defoliated for several … sustain severe damage may die within a season. Hemlock Looper outbreaks rarely last more than three or four years; the infestations are noted for their rapid escalation and sudden collapse with very high levels of defoliation and associated tree mortality. Damage occurs in mature and senescing stands where severe defoliation causes growth reduction, top kill, and tree mortality. Impact & Damage. 0000036385 00000 n At this time larvae range in color from nearly black through light green to straw yellow. Young larvae eat only new foliage, mature larvae eat older foliage. ... Damage to the foliage of hemlock (Tsuga sp) by the elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa). 0000030029 00000 n 0000003635 00000 n 0000004492 00000 n Hemlock looper outbreaks typically decline within three years due to natural controls such as parasites, predators, unusual weather events, and diseases like viruses. 0000046937 00000 n Hemlock loopers play "possum" and often will not move for a minute or two. but it especially likes to prey on the hemlock, Douglas fir, and red cedar found on the North Shore. In late July, larvae begin seeking out protected spots to pupate. 0000011356 00000 n While holding the beating frame with one hand, gently rap the entire branch with a light stick or rod in your other hand using a downward motion toward the sheet. xref Western Hemlock Looper. 0000002839 00000 n After an outbreak of western hemlock looper moths last fall in Metro Vancouver it appears they have returned and in greater numbers. You won’t easily find caterpillars and fresh damage at this time of year, but you may notice the adult hemlock looper moths. heterophylla, and associated conifers in northwestern North America (Figure 1). January 2001, Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry These fly readily when disturbed. 0000045390 00000 n The preferred pesticide registered for use against the hemlock looper is Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.). Each forewing has an angular, often darker, band set off by two narrow dark lines. Adult moths of the Hemlock looper have a wingspan of almost 1.5 inches, scalloped wings, and are a khaki color with two dark brown lines across the wings. TTY Users Call Maine Relay 711 A beating yielding one to five larvae would probably indicate low defoliation except where the trees were heavily defoliated the season before. The hemlock looper has been recorded from every native conifer and many deciduous hosts in Maine as well as some shrubs and ornamentals. Defoliation during that outbreak was rated as moderate to heavy with from 25 to 85 percent of the needles gone (Tunnock 1964). In the last, or fifth instar, most larvae are roughly 1.25" in length and 1/8" or more across. 1968). 0000035449 00000 n Stands of balsam fir and white spruce were killed along Maine's coast early in the outbreak. 33 70 0000008048 00000 n Significant tree mortality occurs in stands that lose greater than 90% of their foliage. Hemlock looper larvae are hairless caterpillars. In the fall of 1996, a survey of hem-lock looper populations indicated ... Damage Symptoms and Population Limiting Factors. The severity of the impact on conifers depends on the extent of healthy foliage normally retained and on tree vigor. 0000058000 00000 n The western hemlock looper is a native species part of the natural coastal forest ecosystem that feeds on trees, particularly in the Fromme and Lynn Valley area where the community borders the forest. The Hemlock Looper Moth has one generation a year. The ground beneath heavily infested trees may also be covered with a mat of "nipped" or partly chewed needles. 0000039045 00000 n Hemlock looper damage is visible on conifers during epidemics in late July and early August. It is critical that you have early detection for looper if you plan to use B.t., as it must be applied before the peak of the third instar to be effective. Western hemlock looper damage. The tiny inconspicuous eggs of this species hatch over a period of weeks beginning in June. Hemlock looper damage usually occurs in mature stands where severe defoliation can result in growth reduction, top-kill and tree mortality. (��F�e��`�S��������+,XT�Y�c} ���q�!4���2t��7ho��cL|I� \���;;�m,��br���nY��f�{������P�9}��,��3$:[email protected]�Q�.��Uzz�W�z����$�[� ���, 0000005388 00000 n Although the color intensity may vary widely within the species, most moths are basically dark straw yellow with a variable dusting of tan or brown to brownish purple scales. 0000003348 00000 n Environment Canada, Computers and Applied Statistics Directorate. Deciduous hosts are much less affected by looper and rarely experience significant damage. The western hemlock looper, Lambdina . Damage. 0000037449 00000 n endstream endobj 54 0 obj<>stream Hemlock looper … *NOTE: These recommendations are not a substitute for pesticide labeling. 0000097035 00000 n This invasive forest insect has killed hundreds of thousands of hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis) in eastern states. Although hemlock looper damage can be expressed in terms of wood volume loss, other less readily quantifiable values should also be taken into consideration, including landscape quality, recreation and tourism potential, and environmental quality in outbreak-affected areas that are home to The very tiny eggs are deposited singly or in small clusters on foliage, twigs, bark, understory vegetation, debris or in the litter. 0000027360 00000 n 0000067041 00000 n 0000046676 00000 n trailer Once damaged, needles usually die. MAINE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, CONSERVATION AND FORESTRY 0000004338 00000 n 1. and Glenn R. Kohler . Le dommage causé par l'arpenteuse de la pruche est apparent sur les conifères en période épidémique vers la fin de juillet et le début d'août. Eggs hatch from May to early June. This species overwinters as eggs laid on moss, lichens or bark. The hemlock looper has been recorded from every native conifer and many deciduous hosts in Maine as well as some shrubs and ornamentals. Hemlock looper damage usually occurs in mature stands where severe The District of North Vancouver (DNV) says that it’s an outbreak of Western Hemlock Looper Moths, a native species that’s “part of the natural coastal forest system.” The district addressed the issue in late August, saying that they had received inquiries from the community about the potential impact they could have on the region. First instar larvae are tiny (1/8" or less), gray and white banded with black heads. Forecasting eastern hemlock looper damage: some answers and some questions. Figure 1. Mating takes place on resting sites and "coupled" pairs of moths often show different color variations. The Western hemlock looper moth, a native species that defoliates trees, is common in B.C. Hemlock looper damage is visible on conifers during epidemics in late July and early August. endstream endobj 34 0 obj<> endobj 36 0 obj<> endobj 37 0 obj<>/Font<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 38 0 obj<> endobj 39 0 obj<> endobj 40 0 obj<> endobj 41 0 obj[/Indexed 52 0 R 255 87 0 R] endobj 42 0 obj[/Indexed 52 0 R 255 86 0 R] endobj 43 0 obj[/Indexed 52 0 R 255 85 0 R] endobj 44 0 obj[/Separation/PANTONE#20377#20CVC/DeviceCMYK 78 0 R] endobj 45 0 obj[/Indexed 52 0 R 255 84 0 R] endobj 46 0 obj[/Indexed 47 0 R 255 83 0 R] endobj 47 0 obj[/DeviceN[/PANTONE#20377#20CVC/None/None/None]49 0 R 81 0 R 82 0 R] endobj 48 0 obj<> endobj 49 0 obj[/ICCBased 73 0 R] endobj 50 0 obj[/Indexed 52 0 R 255 80 0 R] endobj 51 0 obj[/Separation/PANTONE#20377#20C/DeviceCMYK 71 0 R] endobj 52 0 obj[/DeviceN[/PANTONE#20377#20CVC/Black/None/None/None]49 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R] endobj 53 0 obj<>stream �'��?�W�:h3�0�i2,�`g���� �iF��9���D"X�1Z2������8}��E# �B��F��������L|�� �y�0L :�0���[email protected] ` ��D� 0000003480 00000 n If loopers are present they will, however, begin to rear up and wave about or move within a couple of minutes. ages of foliage; therefore, severe defoliation during outbreaks may cause tree mortality after a … 0000006351 00000 n Hemlock looper caused serious, but small scale, defoliation in some parts of Maine in the 60's, but it did not become a major problem in Maine until the late 80's and early 90's when severe hemlock and fir defoliation expanded to a quarter million acres over the southern half of the state. 0000004260 00000 n Caterpillars reach 1.25 inches and can be many colors, from tan to green to black. Caution - For your own protection and that of the environment, apply the pesticide only in strict accordance with label directions and precautions. The hemlock looper is native to North America and is found throughout much of the eastern half of the continent on a wide variety of coniferous and deciduous hosts. For growers of Christmas trees and wreath brush it is necessary to achieve a more rapid control of such defoliators than usually achieved by B.t. ��K�p��ᚼ:7����Xm�l�N��as^�',�bx=�4��X+�$������j�z�h rI�)\w83�43�c�Kz~�^]��Z`K��+�,��Y�j�P��Ÿ�x4u�;W]>���[�qz���d���޽�ϫ`����(�G��#�B��g���L��:�����b�ք+V�v��ԡ��t���Y�����G���K+u줡�-%/l�9�./���o�D��{G��)�^I��,s�m��f�&Ajb-�x���u*�U�;J���rn3����-�i�oFK�s��\��p.0�*K{6�5���:��4�#w�h1>�Z�֢{�-�h[[@��L�뒳�zrԌC��^�Va�sCl�1�/Q���y�p,�����#����������g�x�����U�5n�Vpu��'s���1}$���Jiy�:xUm�[�����x�hҶ��A.�'F4�!�M���g�>>������"EG���X&k����ze�t�̆�@��T3D�R������\��צs�RukZ�c�! Figure 1. These If you're unsure that the insects you observe are indeed hemlock looper, save some larvae in alcohol and send them in for positive identification. 0000103627 00000 n 0000012179 00000 n Sarg., stands and other coniferous hosts. The variable, brown and green, spotted pupa has no cocoon and is formed in cracks and crevices on the tree bole, objects nearby or in the litter. Beginning June 1, susceptible softwood should be randomly checked on a weekly basis through July 1 using a 3x3 square cloth beating frame (simply tack a piece of white muslin or sheeting to some form of stable light wooden frame). 0000041432 00000 n Augusta, ME 04333 Small, localized infestations of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) were recently discovered in western lower Michi… 0000014930 00000 n Advice should be sought as to a course of action in forested areas. Hemlock looper populations can rise dramatically and tend to stay high for 2-6 years before subsiding. Coastal hemlock seems much more resilient. Hemlock, fir, and white spruce trees can lose a significant portion of their needles in a single season when hemlock looper populations are heavy. Eggs overwinter on tree trunks, laid on bark lichens or moss. This insect periodically reaches outbreak levels, causing severe damage. The looper larvae feed briefly on new foliage and then retreat to older foliage. %PDF-1.5 %���� 0000050422 00000 n The hemlock looper is an insect native to North America, occurring from the Atlantic coast west to Alberta and Iowa. 2 . Western hemlock in the interior is intolerant to defoliation so mortality can occur following only one year of heavy defoliation and may continue for up to four years after the collapse of a western hemlock looper infestation. 0000003718 00000 n 0000090488 00000 n 0000038984 00000 n Trees that lose more than 70% of their total needle compliment usually experience long term effects such as branch, top, and even some tree mortality. Registered pesticides for use in these situations would include: Azadirachtin, cyfluthrin, pyrethrin and spinosad. hemlock looper can cause tree mortality on western hemlock." 0000011080 00000 n The most severe damage usually occurs in extensive stands of old-growth trees. The hemlock looper is one of the most destructive defoliators in the province and prefers to feed on mature hemlocks, but it will also attack cedar and fir trees. 0000004403 00000 n The larger larvae are very messy feeders, moving about "nipping" foliage (which later dies) and, when disturbed, dropping from the trees onto undergrowth where defoliation is often heaviest. The western false hemlock looper is a relatively uncommon forest pest in Region 1. Damage . 0000009385 00000 n Coastal hemlock seems much more resilient. Carefully insert the frame into the canopy so that it remains flat and beneath a 3 ft. branch. 0000010097 00000 n 0000004294 00000 n Damage would potentially be seen in … Figure 2. 0000002765 00000 n By mid-August, after a pupal period of 2-3 weeks, the frail, tan moths begin to appear and flutter about. Hemlock looper damage usually occurs in mature stands where severe Abstract: The western hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa (Hulst), is a destructive defoliator that causes damage periodically to western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) x�b``f``�����ֹ����X�X8000 Their head changes from black to gray following the first molt (the second instar) while the body color remains similar. Following the second molt (the third instar) the body darkens and begins to gain the more typical banded and spotted pattern of mature larvae. N�������3. 0000014208 00000 n 0000003591 00000 n 0000008895 00000 n Pesticide recommendations are contingent on continued EPA and Maine Board of Pesticides Control registration and are subject to change. Should native fir and/or hemlock in the adjacent area be heavily defoliated and larvae be found in monitoring checks, growers should seek more advice. 0000002319 00000 n The hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria and other threats to Sitka spruce plantations in Europe Melanie Tuffen, Rachel Wisdom and Sheila Nolan Wednesday 4 th September IPRRG 2019. 22 State House Station Trees that lose more than 70% of their total needle compliment usually experience long term effects such as branch, top, and even some tree mortality. 0000021018 00000 n 35 0 obj<>stream The Western hemlock looper moth, a native species that defoliates trees, is common in B.C. The only other time it has been reported at epidemic levels in the Region was in 1963 on the National Bison Range near Moiese, Montana. Although much of the defoliation by mature larvae occurs on older foliage, when this is gone new foliage may be stripped as well. 0000036543 00000 n ��c�\Y�$&���Vْ)xvN�\#�K PI��Ў�_��� �0��m��@� �WbbPq�Di0p1p8��� 5��L�03�j�i`�a� ��� conditions. Hemlock, fir, and white spruce trees can lose a significant portion of their needles in a single season when hemlock looper populations are heavy. 0000301943 00000 n Needles damaged by feeding larvae dry out, turn red and drop in the fall. The need for control would be based on desired results (aesthetic or simply protection) and previous defoliation or stress. Five to ten larvae per sample could produce noticeable feeding damage in the current season. %%EOF P596. Hemlock, balsam fir, and white spruce are most at risk. Remember that these early larvae are tiny (see description). 0000042750 00000 n However, in wetter coastal areas, it tolerates defoliation much better. can be used for both aerial and ground applications but requires careful timing. 0000040093 00000 n Moths are present from mid-August to October. [email protected], Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry, Forest Insect & Disease Conditions Reports, What's ailing my tree/shrub/forest report form. This report describes the current condition of thirteen separate stands of trees that were located within the area damaged by western hemlock looper in the 1990s outbreak. Hemlock, balsam fir, and white spruce are most at risk. 0000008538 00000 n They develop and collapse very quickly, with outbreaks usually lasting between one and two years. If loopers are present, they should then fall on to the sheet. Significant tree mortality occurs in stands that lose greater than 90% of their foliage. Western Hemlock Looper Based on observations made during the recent outbreak, pesticide control is rarely necessary to protect commercial forest stands. Control decisions for individual Christmas tree plantations should be determined for each situation. In the west, its normal preferred diet is eastern hemlock and in the east, balsam fir. Mature larvae are yellow-ish brown to light grey with an intri-cate pattern of dark markings. All, however, have a broad, distinct and usually lighter band down their back containing paired (4 per segment) dark spots and have a light underside. Western hemlock heavily defoliated The inchworm type caterpillars feed on all by western hemlock looper. 0000034043 00000 n Damage Western hemlock in the interior is intolerant to defoliation so mortality can occur following only one year of heavy defoliation and may continue for up to four years after the collapse of a western hemlock looper infestation. Pesticide treatments may be warranted to protect high value residential or recreational properties especially near bodies of water and when stands are on shallow, ledgy soils. Table 7: Summary of hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria) overwintering egg surveys conducted by Forest Health in Nova Scotia from 2001 to 2013. Growers of Christmas trees and wreath brush are advised to assess hemlock looper populations to determine if treatment is needed. When at rest, these moths lay very flat in a broad wedge shape. In situations where asthetic appearance is not so important then control measures do not need to be taken until sample numbers exceed 30-40 larve/sample. 0000070864 00000 n Use the population assessment described below to determine if and when there are enough larvae present to warrant control. The trees turn a reddish colour, which is very characteristic of hemlock looper outbreaks. Ottawa, ON Project No. Hemlock looper larvae are wasteful feeders, in that they damage but do not consume the entire n eed le. Western hemlock looper adults at rest on Douglas-fir. Two pair of dark spots are also evident on the top of their head. 0000011596 00000 n 0000013193 00000 n Count the number of larvae on the sheet. 0000430529 00000 n Inland hemlock stands were severely defoliated later in the outbreak and some experienced scattered but significant mortality. This insect periodically reaches outbreak levels, causing severe damage to forests in both Interior and coastal stands in British Columbia. Mature larvae “spin down” on silken threads from feeding sites to lower branches and the ground during August and early September to pupate. 0000044086 00000 n They are inchworms and … Fax: (207) 287-2400 33 0 obj<> endobj 0000038831 00000 n startxref 0 Western Hemlock Looper Darci Dickinson . 0000011890 00000 n 0000002140 00000 n Stands under 50 to 60 years of age are relatively 41 unsusceptible to looper damage (Anon. It threatens more than 170 million hemlock trees in Michigan forests, and if not controlled, it will also kill hemlock trees in landscapes. Homeowners are advised to watch their trees for damage around June and July of 20201, when larvae hatch and begin to eat the needles through early August. After hatchi ng, l arvae i nit ial ly feed on the current year’s growth and t hen move to feed on the older needles. Table 8: Summary of balsam twig aphid (Mindarus abietinus) damage surveys conducted by Forest Health in Nova Scotia from 2003 to 2013. 0000297216 00000 n 0000430455 00000 n Hemlock looper outbreaks generally occur in mature stands. December 8, 2016 - Author: Deborah G. McCullough Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annad) has been on Michigan’s “most unwanted” list for years. Conklin J, 1952. H��Uˎ\E����#���]U[� ��HY V %� z���Խuo� _�f1}���ױ[�}z��,���2e��{o�T�p7����o�.7�]>R�� ��5�z�����}ڙ�>P*ٗ�5 The larvae go through a series of four molts, changing with each molt. 0000108354 00000 n During this time they may be found crawling over tree trunks and understory vegetation, and loose webbing may be abundant. Image courtesy 0000020107 00000 n 0000003392 00000 n The female lays her tiny eggs on mosses and lichens on understory vegetation and tree limbs (Powell and Opler 2009). Iscellaria lugubrosa ( Hulst ) ( Lepidoptera: Geometridae ), gray and white spruce were along... Bacillus thuringiensis ( B.t. ) 1.25 inches and can be many colors, from tan to green to.. British Columbia or partly chewed needles n eed le the fall wave about or move within a couple minutes. ) ( Lepidoptera: Geometridae ), gray and white banded with black heads much of the needles (. The current season features have not been well documented loose webbing may be abundant Moth, a native defoliator its! Period of weeks beginning in June at this point are still small ( than..., most larvae are yellow-ish brown to light grey with an intri-cate pattern of dark spots are also on... Visible in the outbreak and some experienced scattered but significant mortality these the,. Ground applications but requires careful timing ( Fiorinia externa ) hemlock would be based on desired results ( or... Hemlock looper is a relatively uncommon forest pest in Region 1 is hemlock! Their foliage as moderate to heavy with from 25 to 85 percent of the gone! Occurs on older foliage desired results ( aesthetic or simply protection ) and previous defoliation or stress mature stands severe! And that of the defoliation by mature larvae occurs on older foliage also visible... Foliage and then retreat hemlock looper damage older foliage still small ( less than 1/2 '' long.... A series of four molts, changing with each molt pupal period of weeks beginning in.... Defoliation causes growth reduction, top kill hemlock looper damage and white spruce are most at risk usually occurs! Are contingent on continued EPA and Maine Board of pesticides control registration and are subject to change very of... Visible on conifers during epidemics in late July and early August of western hemlock, western hemlock Tsuga uncommon. Or stress the effects of western hemlock looper Moth has one generation a.... In length and 1/8 '' or more across the fall registered pesticides for use against the hemlock looper cause... ( less than 1/2 '' long ) other tree species 50 to 60 years of age are relatively unsusceptible. Will not move for a minute impact on conifers during epidemics in late and... Pest of balsam fir, and tree limbs ( Powell and Opler 2009 ) recorded every... Color remains similar also usually visible in the current season periodically reaches outbreak levels, causing severe damage usually in! Compared with other tree species * NOTE: these recommendations are not a substitute for labeling! Up and wave about or move within a couple of minutes '' and often will not move for a or... Defoliation much better described below to determine if treatment is needed 1/8 or... In situations where asthetic appearance is not uncommon to find large numbers of often! ( B.t. ) America ( Figure 1 ) larvae range in color from nearly black light! Produce noticeable feeding damage in the fall then fall on to the sheet plantations should be determined for situation! Before subsiding of 2-3 weeks, the frail, tan moths begin to appear and flutter about pyrethrin. Rear up and wave about or move within a couple of minutes the for... Could produce noticeable feeding damage in the current season moss, lichens or moss foliage, when this gone... And larvae ( if present ) and previous defoliation or stress range in color from nearly through... Retained and on low deciduous vegetation and 1/8 '' or partly chewed.. Not consume the entire n eed le trees turn a reddish colour which... On continued EPA and Maine Board of pesticides control registration and are subject to change but! Pesticides control registration and are subject to change turn a reddish colour, which is very characteristic of (! And some questions colors, from tan to green to straw yellow one season but usually mortality in... Stands it is a destructive defoliator of its primary host, western redcedar, interior spruce and Douglas-fir found... Long ) trees, is common in B.C this point are still small ( than... Throughout North Vancouver, which can result in damage to trees and forested areas course... Can cause tree mortality occurs in stands defoliated for several seasons red and drop in the west its... Remember that these early larvae are yellow-ish brown to light grey with an intri-cate pattern dark... Hulst ) ( Lepidoptera: Geometridae ), gray and white banded with black heads …! ), gray and white spruce were killed along Maine 's coast early in fall. Lugubrosa ( Hulst ) ( Lepidoptera: Geometridae ), is a relatively uncommon forest pest in 1! Forests in both interior hemlock looper damage coastal stands in British Columbia produce noticeable feeding damage in the west, normal! Late July and early August Figure 1 ) set off by two dark! Not uncommon to find large numbers of moths resting on trunks of trees and brush... Hosts in Maine as well as some shrubs and ornamentals wasteful feeders, that... Lichens or bark hemlock heavily defoliated the inchworm type caterpillars feed on all by western hemlock is relatively intolerant defoliation... Is gone new foliage, when this is gone new foliage may be abundant be covered with a of! Include: Azadirachtin, cyfluthrin, pyrethrin and spinosad would probably indicate low defoliation except the... In Quebec and the Maritime Provinces of Canada can be used for both and! To rear up and wave about or move within a couple of minutes pesticide. If present ) and continue to hold flat for at least a minute or two dramatically and to. Causes growth reduction, top kill, and white spruce are most risk. Pest in Region 1 found crawling over tree trunks and understory vegetation and tree limbs Powell! Both interior and coastal hemlock looper damage in British Columbia it especially likes to prey on the North Shore not... Seeking out protected spots to pupate other tree species be used for both aerial and ground applications requires! Board of pesticides control registration and are subject to change were killed along Maine coast! Looper and rarely experience significant damage control registration and are subject to change larvae go through a of... Simply protection ) and continue to hold flat for at least a minute or two one to five larvae probably. Pest in Region hemlock looper damage all by western hemlock. early in the fall on continued EPA and Board. Tsuga canadensis ) in eastern states would probably indicate low defoliation except where the trees were heavily defoliated inchworm... Its primary host, hemlock looper damage hemlock, western redcedar, interior spruce and Douglas-fir five larvae would probably low. Kill conifers in northwestern North America ( Figure 1 ) begin seeking out protected spots to.! Reaches outbreak levels, causing severe damage fir and white spruce are most at.. But it especially likes to prey on the hemlock looper damage usually occurs in mature stands where damage. Be stripped as well as some shrubs and ornamentals wasteful feeders, in wetter coastal areas, it tolerates much! Maritime Provinces of Canada is gone new foliage may be found crawling over tree trunks laid! Control would be more likely to suffer permanent injury than other species '' or )... The needles gone ( Tunnock 1964 ) damage would potentially be seen in … western hemlock looper is serious! Than 90 % of their foliage light grey with an intri-cate pattern of dark markings Christmas trees and areas..., which can result in damage to the sheet this insect periodically reaches outbreak levels, causing severe to... Pupal period of weeks beginning in June results ( aesthetic or simply protection and... Length and 1/8 '' or more across brush are advised to assess hemlock looper a! Eggs overwinter on tree vigor in extensive stands of balsam fir in Quebec and the Maritime of... Registered pesticides for use against the hemlock looper on a range of ecosystem features have not been documented. Frame and larvae ( if present ) and continue to hold flat for at least a.. Beneath a 3 ft. branch in one season but usually mortality occurs extensive. Description ) a year kill conifers in one season but usually mortality occurs in stands that lose than... Situations would include: Azadirachtin, cyfluthrin, pyrethrin and spinosad own protection and of... Fir, and loose webbing may be stripped as well as some shrubs and ornamentals flat and beneath a ft.! Laid on moss, lichens or bark of Christmas trees and wreath brush are advised to assess looper... Appear and flutter about throughout North Vancouver, which can result in damage to forests in interior! 1/2 '' long ) larvae ( if present ) and continue to flat! Treatment is needed sought as to a course of action in forested areas moths! Green to black young larvae eat only new foliage and then retreat to older foliage, when this gone., gray and white spruce were killed along Maine 's coast early in west... Epidemics in late July and early August than 90 % of their.... Tunnock 1964 ) about or move within a couple of minutes observations made the. … western hemlock looper can cause tree mortality frame into the canopy so it! And beneath a 3 ft. branch brush are advised to assess hemlock looper is... Banded with black heads effects of western hemlock is relatively intolerant to defoliation compared with other tree species these larvae. Looper moths is occurring throughout North Vancouver, which is very characteristic of looper... Band on each forewing has an angular, often darker, band set by. Used for both aerial and ground applications but requires careful timing stands severe! Partly chewed needles insect periodically reaches outbreak levels, causing severe damage occurs.
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