Thus if the Judaizers did appeal to the original apostles in support of their legalistic claims, the appeal does not establish any real unity of principle between them and the original apostles, or any divergence of principle between the original apostles and Paul. moreover, to proclaim a crucified malefactor as the Lord's Anointed. Certain other things just as important may be omitted from the Epistles only because in their case no misunderstandings had happened to arise. For in Gal. According to Acts iv. To learn more about our ministry and how you can partner with us to share God’s Word with people around the world, go to, OVERCOMING CHALLENGES WITH DIGITAL INNOVATION, Biblica – The International Bible Society, My Unplanned, Yet God-Inspired Journey to Becoming a Bible Translator, I’m More Interested in How Thanksgiving Started Than Where it Started, Kids Are Hunting for Treasure in God’s Word, God’s Word is Going to the 2018 Winter Olympics in a Big Way, First-Ever Sorani Kurdish Bible Published. But what can possibly be regarded as essential to his gospel if it was not his doctrine of Christ as divine Redeemer? There was preparation in Old Testament revelation, here as elsewhere, for the coming of the Messiah. It is not so in the case of Paul. But the tendency in recent years is to find a larger and larger historical basis for the concrete assertions of the author of Acts. ", But suppose the separation has been completed; suppose the historical Jesus has been discovered beneath the gaudy colors which had almost hopelessly defaced His portrait. xiv. Yet the surprising thing is that the mighty transition has left not the slightest trace in the primary sources of information. For historic Christianity, like the religion of Paul, is a religion of redemption. But the argument is not decisive. In principle, therefore, Paul and Peter were agreed. • Jesus Says Some Are Righteous, But Paul Says It Is Impossible. That Epistle represents Paul as a pastor of souls, unsurpassed in his insight into the practical problems of his converts, unsurpassed in the tact with which he applied great principles to special circumstances. If the Gospels are introducing into their picture of Jesus elements derived not from the real Jesus but from the mythical Christ of the Epistles, then of course they will display similarity to the Epistles; but such similarity will scarcely be very significant. The thing is unthinkable. They have pointed out exaggerations; they have traced the influence of Jesus upon Paul in detail; they have distinguished religion from theology, and abandoning the theology of Paul they have sought to derive his religion from Jesus of Nazareth. An example is the Lord’s Supper. To such observers, the Jewish practice of the original apostles would furnish welcome support; these observers would not care to look beneath the surface; they would say simply to the Gentile Christians of Galatia: "The original disciples of Jesus obey the Mosaic Law; must not you do likewise?". In these chapters, religion and theology are blended in a union which no critical 1 Wrede, Paulus, 1904, p. 93 (English Translation, Paul, 1907, p. 161). But suppose He did exist, suppose the psychological impossibilities of His character be ignored. Instead, He appeared in love, to call him into fellowship and into glorious service, to commission him as apostle of the One whose Church he had laid waste. The meaning might conceivably be that the Jerusalem leaders only "seemed" or "were thought" to be something, or only thought themselves to be something (compare Gal. But as a matter of fact it is by no means perfectly clear that the appeal was made; it is by no means clear that the Judaizers appealed to the original apostles for the content of their legalistic message rather than merely for their attack upon the independent apostleship of Paul. Let it not be said that this conclusion involves an undue employment of the argument from silence; let it not be said that although the original apostles did not share Paul's conception of the heavenly Christ, Paul did not find it necessary to enter into the debate in his Epistles. But they were important, not as an end in themselves, but as a means to an end. Still another interpretation is favored by Bohlig, who thinks that the word designates Andronicus and Junias as members of the Jewish colony at Tarsus, the boyhood home of Paul.1 But however the interesting exegetical problems may be solved, it seems evident that Andronicus and Junias had become Christians earlier than Paul, and that they were therefore representatives of primitive Christianity. So when Paul first has to defend his doctrine of the exclusive and supreme importance of Christ, he defends it not against conservative disciples, who could appeal either with or without reason to the original apostles, but against gnostic speculation. So what does this have to do with Paul? Yet in 1 Cor. xi. Whatever may be thought of this detail, the later association of Barnabas with Paul, at Antioch and on the first missionary journey, is generally or universally recognized as historical. Even after the revelation he felt no need of instruction from those who had been apostles before him. Indeed, if he had not done so, he would have involved himself in absurdity. Indeed, so far as can be seen, it was never criticized even by the Judaizers themselves. 1-29, would naturally bring an enrichment in Paul's knowledge of Jesus' earthly ministry. The opponents had claimed to have further information about Jesus, the Spirit, and the gospel. The very choice of material in the Gospels points to the same conclusion; the Gospels like the Epistles of Paul are more interested in the death of Jesus than in the details of His life. Finally, some scholars think he was named after King Saul, another distant relative since Paul came from a devout Jewish family and was of the lineage of Benjamin, as was King Saul, the first king of Israel. Did they regard him as an innovator with respect to Jesus, or did they admit him to the company of Jesus' true disciples? When, for example, Paul says that the institution of the Lord's Supper took place on the night in which Jesus was betrayed, he presupposes on the part of his readers an account of the betrayal, and hence an account of the traitor and of his position among the apostles. Manuscript evidence is rather evenly divided between the present tense of the verb at the end of the verse and the imperfect tense.1 Unquestionably the imperfect tense is the more difficult reading; it is favored therefore by the well-known principle of textual criticism that the more difficult reading is to be preferred to the easier. ix. The man who is in Christ, on the other hand, may operate partly with the same materials; but even when he is operating with the same materials, even when he is obtaining by sight or by hearsay knowledge of the words and deeds of Jesus, these facts now are invested with a higher significance. When it came time for the youthful Paul to learn a trade, he learned how to make tents—and for good reason! Paul accepts all the truth of natural religion; all the truth that reappears in the vague liberalism of modern times. The natural man detects only the outward appearance of the words and deeds of Jesus; the man who is in Christ makes them attest facts that have significance in the new world. Now, however, he obtained a new interpretation of the facts; he obtained that new interpretation not by human intermediation, not by reflection upon the testimony of the disciples, not by the example of the holy martyrs, but by revelation from Jesus Himself. Jesus, according to Paul, was a Jew, He was descended from David, He was subject to the Mosaic Law, He had brothers, of whom one is named, He carried on a ministry for the Jews (Rom. Such indifference, however, is also thought to be attested by the Epistle to the Galatians. While the Bible does not specify when and how Paul died, we know that 2nd Timothy was written while Paul was in a Roman prison from 66-67 AD—not long after the burning of Rome in 64—and that during this time Paul was anticipating his death: “For I am already being poured out like a drink offering, and the time for my departure is near. This is an embodied future, not a ghostly one in some other place called heaven. Why Paul? The natural man according to Paul does not understand the true significance of the words and deeds of his fellow-men; he does not use them to attest spiritual facts. These references are few; their scantiness may require explanation. So it is also with the knowledge of Christ. The liberal Jesus, if he ever existed, may have been insane. Surely it was religion—warm, living religion. They can only be commands given by Jesus during His earthly ministry.1. Indeed, so far as can be seen, it was never criticized even by the Judaizers themselves. They really were great, but it was only the false use which had been made of their greatness by the Judaizers which caused him to lay his gospel before them. The whole of Paulinism is based upon the redemptive work of Jesus Christ. In recent criticism, such radicalism as that which has just been discussed is usually avoided. 20, the love of Christ, upon which the faith and the gratitude of believers are based, is found in the one great fact of Christ's death ("who loved me and gave himself for me"). These two things are mentioned only because of the misunderstandings that had arisen with regard to them. What was the origin of the religion of Paul? Acts 20:35: I have shewed you all things, how that so labouring ye ought to support the weak, and to remember the words of Jesus, how He said, It is more blessed to give than to receive. The review of Paul's life has prepared the way for the principal subject of investigation. The word "received" here certainly designates information obtained by ordinary word of mouth, not direct revelation from the risen Christ; and the content of what was "received" fixes the source of the information pretty definitely in the fifteen days which Paul spent with Peter at Jerusalem. The chief witness to the transcendent conception of Jesus as divine Redeemer is quite unconscious of introducing anything new; indeed he expressly calls attention to the harmony of his proclamation with that of the intimate friends of Jesus. If Jesus was what the liberal theologians represent Him as being—a teacher of righteousness, a religious genius, a guide on the way to God—then not Jesus but Paul was the true founder of historic Christianity. Whatever may be thought of the Book of Acts as a whole, the twelfth chapter is recognized as embodying primitive tradition. Oremus suggests that Jesus’s views on homosexuality were mo… What is really most significant in the Pauline Epistles therefore, is the complete absence of any defense of the Pauline doctrine of Christ, the complete absence, indeed, of any systematic presentation of that doctrine. 11:25). The man had a miraculous conversion experience and began preaching that Jesus is the Messiah with a boldness that changed history—and somewhere in the process Jesus renamed him Paul to represent his conversion and rebirth. Paul commanded Timothy, a young church leader, “I charge you, in the sight of God and Christ Jesus and the elect angels, to keep these instructions without partiality, and to do nothing out of favoritism” (1 Timothy 5:21). But as a matter of fact Paul was not indifferent to ordinary information about men in general. The prejudices of the reader have triumphed here over all exegetical principles; a vague modernism has been attributed to the sternest, as well as most merciful, Prophet who ever walked upon earth. Jesus did not say: God is a trinity. 1 4. et fiiv yap i ipx&fitvos &XXov 'Iriaojv Kripbaati Sv Ovk bnjpbl-aii v, fj wvtviia trtpov Xaiifiavtrt 8 oiiK iXd/Sere, fj tliayytXiov trtpov 4 Ook tMgavtfc, KaXws avixto8t. The natural suggestion is that such defense is absent because it was not called forth by anything that the opponents said. But his solution, despite its grandeur, has succumbed. According to this interpretation, which has much to be said in its favor, Paul refutes the opponents and their arrogant claims of bringing something superior to Paul's message, by a reference to the obvious fact that there is only one Jesus. That he did so is attested not by the Book of Acts or by any source upon which doubt might be cast, but by one of the accepted epistles. But just for that reason, it should not be made the foundation for far-reaching theories. This report also belongs with those passages in the Epistles which attest knowledge of the details of Jesus' life. Yet the Gospels make the impression of being independent of Paul. On the contrary, it may almost be said that the very point of the passage is that God cares for all although He is not the Father of all. Paul knew the words spoken by our Lord Jesus. And those passages are not concerned with the details of Jesus' earthly life. Here is what Jesus has to say. So it is also with the knowledge of Christ. In 1 Corinthians 16:2, Paul urged … The presumption is, therefore, that Paul was a true disciple of Jesus. From the wider context of Paul’s undisputed letters, there are a number of indications of this high devotion to Jesus. The Messianic element in the consciousness of Jesus is rooted too deep in the sources ever to be removed by any critical process. But this latter suggestion is excluded not only by the whole tenor of the Epistles (in which Paul never displays the slightest consciousness of any such revolution in his idea of Christ), but also especially by the present passage. How shall such agreement be explained? Schweitzer, Qeschichte der Leben-Jesu-Forschung, 1913, pp. the "liberal Jesus." The fifteen days spent with Peter at Jerusalem brought Paul into contact with the most intimate possible source of information about Jesus. The Father judges no one, but has given all judgment to the Son, that all may honor the Son, just as they honor the Father." The fact is of enormous importance. They revealed the character of Jesus; they showed why He was worthy to be trusted. It must always be remembered that the Epistles do not contain the missionary preaching of Paul; they are addressed to Christians, in whose case much of the primary instruction had already been given. v. 16 Paul says, "Even if we have known Christ according to the flesh, yet now we know Him so no more." xv. 1 rapiXafiov. Thus He had a tremendous consciousness of a mission. Paul knew about the Communion service … Surely, it might be said, therefore, he based at least the resurrection not at all upon the testimony of others but upon the revelation which came to him from Christ. (1 Cor. 23fF. Even the Judaizers seem to have had no objection to the heavenly Christ of Paul. The really astounding fact, which emerges from all discussion of the apostolic age, is that the Pauline conception of the person of Christ, whatever may be said of the Pauline doctrine of Gentile freedom, was never criticized by the original apostles. Paul means to say that a principle essentially similar to that of the Gentile Christians, according to which in their case the keeping of the Mosaic Law was relinquished, was the fixed basis of Peter's life. Contrary to popular belief, Israel is not the chosen nation today. How 1Heitmiiller, Jesus, 1913, p. 71. could Jesus, with His humility and sobriety and strength, ever have lapsed so far from the path of sanity as to assume the central place in the Kingdom of God? It is natural to interpret one passage after the analogy of the other. believes that the connection between Peter and Mark is probably to be placed only in the early years, principally before the first association of Mark with Paul. The early disciples in Jerusalem continued to observe the Jewish fasts and feasts; they continued in diligent attendance upon the Temple services. It would make Paul indifferent not only to ordinary information about Jesus, but also to ordinary information about men in general. “Imitate me, just as I also imitate Christ,” he told the Corinthians (1 Corinthians 11:1). The Corinthian Epistles, as has been observed in the last chapter, afford no real support to the hypothesis of an interapostolic conflict. Fourth, church leaders are especially charged not to show favoritism. xiv. 15, the assurance that those who are alive at the Parousia shall not precede those that have died is grounded in a word of the Lord ("For this we say to you in a word of the Lord").2 Here again the "word of Hie Lord" is probably to be regarded as a word which Jesus spoke while He was on earth, rather than as a revelation made by the risen. What then was the true relation between Paul and Jesus? The answer is perfectly plain. He taught, it for example, in the parables of the laborers in the vineyard and of the servant coming in from the field. In the Pauline Epistles special problems are solved in the light of eternal principles; but the special problems as well as the eternal principles are subjected to the most careful examination. Instead, he would have had to establish the truth of his presentation. If it were not for the errorists at Corinth we should never have had the all-important passage about the appearances of the risen Christ. The thought is perfectly clear if only the pronoun "me" be supplied at the end of verse 4. In the above passages from Galatians and 1 Corinthians, for example, and in 1 Cor. The only possible answer, on naturalistic presuppositions, would be that the vision merely made use of materials which were already in Paul's mind; Paul already had information from the eyewitnesses about the Supper, but after he had forgotten whence he had received the information it welled up again from his subconscious life in the form of a vision. 'What is really significant in Colossians is the character of the errorists. For this historical Jesus, this human Jesus of modern liberalism, is a monstrosity; there is a contradiction at the very center of His being. So it is in other cases where Paul refers to the life and teaching of Jesus. xv. It exemplifies the kind of personal connection that was undoubtedly maintained between primitive Christianity and the Gentile churches. The man who is in Christ, on the contrary, even when he uses ordinary means of information, is acquiring knowledge of spiritual relationships, relationships which exist in the new world. Bare detailed information about the words and deeds of Jesus did not in Paul's mind constitute a "gospel"; they constituted only the materials upon which the gospel was based. The profound consciousness which he had of his apostolic authority did not permit any such course of action; and such restrictions would have hindered his work wherever he went. It was not necessary for him to receive it all over again in a vision. The Paul who combated the legalists in Galatia, like the Jesus who combated the scribes and Pharisees, was contending for a God of grace. Or is it merely said that Andronicus and Junias were regarded highly by the apostles, had a good reputation among them? 7. xi. Even then. Thus the testimony of Paul is plain. The mention of Andronicus and Junias in Rom. The problem is a moral and psychological problem. ii. The cloth was woven from the long-hair of a peculiar breed of goats native to the area. But suppose Baur were right about the point which has just been discussed; suppose even the most impossible admissions be made; suppose it be granted that the original apostles differed fundamentally from Paul. The verb is in the present tense—"if thou being a Jew livest as do the Gentiles and not as do the Jews." The story of Jesus revealed what Jesus had done for others: He had -healed the sick; He had given sight to the blind; He had raised the dead. 4. another Jesus," Paul says, "then they might claim to bring you something that I did not bring. Even when he did finally have a conference with the original apostles, he received nothing from them; they recognized that God had already entrusted him with his gospel and that they had nothing to add. But he adds to it the truth of the gospel. Some interpreters have discovered in the words, "even though we have known Christ after the flesh," a reference to a fleshly conception of Christ which laid stress upon His Davidic descent, His connection with the Jewish people, and in general His ordinary human relationships, to the neglect of His higher, divine nature. 8). He will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and declare it to you. What was their attitude toward Paul? But the radical denials of the historicity of Jesus are not without interest. xi. 1-11 thus exhibits the danger of interpreting the Epistle to the Galatians in one-sided fashion. What has caused the vast majority of commentators to supply "him" rather than "me" at the end of verse 4 is apparently the parallel with 2 Cor. Both in Jesus and in Paul, the implications of entrance are ethical. 8 certainly refers to ordinary information obtained from eyewitnesses; it is natural therefore to find a similar usage of the word in 1 Cor. In 1 Cor. The indifference of Paul toward historical information about Jesus is thought to be attested chiefly by 2 Cor. They were, therefore, primitive disciples. The peculiarities of the passage may perhaps be due partly to the fact that Paul is here using catchwords of his adversaries. After the rapture she will once again have “most favored nation status,” but not today in the The tradition according to which the apostle Peter finally went to Rome is emerging triumphant 1 from the fires of criticism; and if Peter went to Rome, it is inconceivable that he separated himself from Gen1 See, for example, Lietzmann, Petrus and Paulus in Bom, 1915. tile Christians. Certainly the break cannot come after verse 14; for the thought of that verse is quite incomplete in itself and becomes intelligible only when explained by what follows. Or is it to be supposed that Paul closed his ears to what his brother missionary said? Paul equates worldliness with spiritual immaturity in 1 Corinthians 3:1-3, where he addresses the believers in the church of Corinth in regard to their worldly behavior. Paul did think of Jesus as God. The Gospels, like the Epistles of Paul, are interested in the death of Jesus because it was a ransom from sin. The investigator triumphantly writes his Q. E. 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